Aggregate: A mineral substance utilized in pavement applications or mixed with seal coating and asphalt products. Examples of aggregates include gravel, crushed rock, slag, and crushed stone.

The word “asphalt” refers to the bitumen used in the construction of roadways and parking lots. Also referred to as concrete asphalt.

Asphalt Binder: The AASHTO Designation MP1 Standard Specification for Performance Graded Asphalt Binder is used to categorize asphalt cement. As long as the asphalt cement meets the requirements, it can be either modified or unaltered.

SS-1H Asphalt Binders: Anionic emulsions called SS-1H Asphalt Binders are intended to be used as a tack layer for asphalt coating, overlays, patching, and paving. SS-1H encourages asphalt adherence and is applied with a brush, squeegee, or sprayer without requiring dilution.

Asphalt Concrete: A well-mixed and compacted mixture of aggregate and asphalt binder is known as asphalt concrete.

Alligator Cracks: Excessive surface deflection over an unstable subgrade results in interconnected cracks that form a sequence of tiny blocks that resemble the skin of an alligator.

Asphalt Distributor: An asphalt distributor is a car that applies asphalt to a surface evenly and is equipped with an insulated tank, heating system, and distribution system.

Asphalt Emulsion: A mixture of water and asphalt binder with a trace amount of emulsifying agent added.

Cold Asphalt Emulsion Mix: This can be mixed in place or plant-mixed mixture of unheated aggregate and emulsified asphalt binder.

Warm Asphalt Emulsion Mix: A concoction of gravel and asphalt emulsion that is usually mixed at a temperature over 150°F and distributed and compacted in a hot mix asphalt plant at a temperature below 200°F.

Asphalt Leveling Course: This hot mix asphalt course with varying thickness is used to smooth out existing surface flaws before laying the next course.

Asphalt Pavements: Pavements made of asphalt concrete surface coursed over supporting courses are known as asphalt pavements.

Asphalt Sealing Additives: To improve the properties of asphalt, additives are used into sealer mixtures. Some improve resistance to oil, fuel, and grease; others lessen power steering markings. Additionally, there are additives to improve water resistance.

Asphalt Tack Coat: A thin layer of asphalt binder over freshly laid asphalt. The best kind of asphalt emulsion to create a bond between an existing surface and the overlying course is one that has been diluted with water.


Base: The material put in place prior to asphalt paving is referred to by this broad phrase. One of the main reasons for pavement failures is inadequate base material. This layer is located below the surface courses and binder in the pavement system.

Batch Plant: A production plant that blends components in a proportionate manner to create asphalt paving mixtures. These facilities make asphalt in batches rather than constantly, which makes them ideal for short production runs and frequent mixture type changes.

Black Top: An adverb used to describe asphalt. It’s crucial to remember that you shouldn’t ask for work or specs using this phrase.

Binder: Directly beneath the surface course lies the hot mix asphalt course. Compared to the top layer, it usually has bigger aggregates and less asphalt.

Bitumen: Bitumen is a petroleum-based liquid or semi-solid that is extremely viscous, sticky, and black. It can be obtained as a refined product or in natural deposits. It is categorized as a pitch, but prior to the 20th century, it was also known as asphaltum.


CASp: In response to public demand for qualified persons capable of assessing buildings and sites for compliance with state and federal construction-related accessibility regulations, the Certified Access Specialist (CASp) program was created by Senate Bill 262 (Chapter 872, 2003). Title 21 Voluntary Certified Access Specialist Program Regulations govern the operation of this program.

In order to protect property and business owners from needless litigation about impaired access that do not follow the goals of the Americans with Disabilities Act, the CASp program was created.

Properties surveyed by a CASp inspector after January 1, 2009, are eligible for the CASp program. In the event of a construction-related accessibility claim, the owner of a property or company that has undergone a CASp survey is entitled to additional legal benefits.

These legal benefits include the setting up of an early evaluation conference and a 90-day stay of the claim’s procedures, granted by the court. A stay stops any legal action in the interim, prohibiting lawyers from filing motions or requests for discovery that can result in higher final settlement amounts and legal fees. Early evaluation conferences facilitate settlements and speed up resolutions by acting as a forum for court-mediated negotiations.

CASp Report: Upon being hired, a certified access specialist usually surveys the property and produces a report. Some or all of the following could be included in this report, depending on the selected CASp inspector:

  • Identification of the location of each access feature at the facility.
  • Color photographs of each access element.
  • Color-coded data sheets displaying all existing measurements of each element, with non-compliant items coded in red.
  • Notes on any additional compliance issues.
  • Site-specific possible solutions for barrier removal.
  • General design details for compliant alterations.

Compliance Design Consultants is recommended by Superior Asphalt because of their thorough reports. On the other hand, the Division of State Architects’ website has an exhaustive list.

Channels (Ruts): Channeled depressions that can form in pavement wheel patterns.

Coarse Aggregate: Used in the building sector, coarse aggregate is made up of broken rock fragments. The usual sizes for them are 10, 12, 16, 20, 25, 32, and 40 mm.

Compaction: In hot mix asphalts, compaction lowers the air volume. For hot mix asphalt compaction, there are three main types of equipment that can be used: the pneumatic tire roller, the steel-wheeled roller, and the paver screed.

Crack: A vertical cleavage in the pavement brought on by heat stress, binder aging, and/or traffic loads.

Crack Filling: To lessen water infiltration and strengthen the nearby pavement, crack filling is injecting asphalt emulsion into non-working cracks. For non-working cracks with little to no edge degeneration, it’s frequently the best option.

Crack Sealing: Crack sealing is a technique used to stop water infiltration in which hot sealant is applied to active cracks. In most cases, it is the best choice for cracks with little to no edge damage. Because of their rubberization, these sealants don’t stiffen when the pavement moves. They prolong the life of the pavement by keeping water and debris out of active fissures that keep getting bigger over time.


Disintegration: When weathering or traffic forces cause a pavement to break up into small, loose bits. This problem is often seen around parking lot margins where gutters and curbs meet.

Distortion: Any change in the original shape of a pavement surface is referred to as distortion.


Edge Joint Cracks: Cracks near the edge where the pavement meets the shoulder are known as edge joint cracks. They frequently arise from the joint being exposed to circumstances beneath the shoulder surface that alternate between being damp and dry. Trucks straddling the joint, mix shrinkage, and shoulder settling are additional reasons that might result in these fissures.

Effective Thickness: The ratio of an existing pavement material’s thickness to the same thickness of a new layer of HMA (hot mix asphalt) is known as effective thickness.

Emulsifying Agent or Emulsifier: To maintain the asphalt in a stable suspension in the water, an emulsifying agent, also known as an emulsifier, is a chemical that is added to the mixture of water and asphalt.


Fatigue Resistance: The ability of asphalt pavement to resist breaking brought on by repeated flexing is known as fatigue resistance.

Fault: A fault is a difference in elevation at a joint or fracture between two contiguous slabs.

Fine Aggregate: The majority of the particles in fine aggregates may pass through a 3/8-inch filter and are usually crushed stone or natural sand.

Flexibility: The ability of an asphalt pavement structure to adjust to foundation settling is referred to as its flexibility. The flexibility of the asphalt paving mixture is often improved by a higher asphalt concentration.

Fog Seal: Applying a thin layer of diluted asphalt emulsion is the process of creating a fog seal. It is used to stop raveling, repair microscopic cracks and surface voids, and revitalize aged asphalt surfaces.

Full-Depth Asphalt Pavement: The Asphalt Institute has registered the phrase “FULL-DEPTH” with the U.S. Patent Office, certifying that the pavement is made up of asphalt mixtures for all courses above the subgrade or enhanced subgrade. On the prepared subgrade, a full-depth asphalt pavement is laid down directly.


Grade Depressions: Where the pavement surface is lower than the surrounding region, grade depressions are small, confined, and restricted in size.

Grade: The degree of angle on a surface is denoted by its grade. It is a measurement of the surface’s slope.


Heavy Trucks: Trucks with six tires and two axles or more are considered heavy trucks. This group also includes trucks with wide-base, heavy-duty tires.

Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA): Comprising of well-graded aggregate and asphalt binder, Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) is a closely monitored hot combination. It is possible to condense this mixture into a homogenous mass.

Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Overlay: To improve the performance of an existing pavement, one or more layers of hot mix asphalt are put over it.


Impermeability: The ability of an asphalt pavement to resist fluids passing through or into it is known as impermeability.


Lane Joint Cracks: These are longitudinal breaks that develop at the joint where two pavement lanes meet.

Lift: A lift is a layer of paver material that is put on top of a base or another layer that has already been laid.

Lime Treated Subgrade: This type of preparation entails adding lime to subgrade soil and mechanically mixing and compacting it. A higher modulus foundation material than the on-site soil is produced as a result of this technique.

Lime-Fly Ash Base: Lime, fly ash, water, and mineral aggregate are combined to create this type of road base material. It creates a dense mass with greater strength when combined and compacted.

Longitudinal Crack: This type of pavement fracture is vertical and runs parallel to the road’s centerline.


Maintenance Mix: For fixing relatively small portions in already-existing pavements, a maintenance mix is a mixture of mineral aggregate and asphalt emulsion.

Crushed dense graded aggregate, mineral filler, water, additives, and asphalt emulsion modified with polymers are the ingredients of micro-surfacing. It is put to the pavement as a thin layer of resurfacing, usually between 3/8 and 3/4 inch (10 to 20 mm) thick.

Milling Machine: A milling machine is a self-propelled device with a carbide-tipped cutting head that is used to grind down and remove asphalt layers from pavements.

Multiple Surface Treatment: Applying two or more surface treatments on top of one another is known as a multiple surface treatment. As a consequence, the wearing and waterproofing course is denser than with a single surface treatment.


Oil Spot Primers: To help stop oil from leaking through recently applied seal coatings, oil spot primers are chemicals that are applied to oil and grease patches on parking lots.

Overlay: The act of adding a fresh layer of asphalt to an already-existing cement concrete or asphalt surface is known as an overlay, and it is usually done to improve the performance and durability of the pavement.


Pavement Base: The lower or underlying pavement layer that rests on top of the subbase or subgrade is known as the pavement base.

Pavement Structure: The pavement system as a whole, from the subgrade at the bottom to the surface at the top, is included in the pavement structure.

Petromat Overlay: Prior to putting a fresh overlay, the surface of the current pavement is coated with a fabric membrane that resists cracking.

Plant Mix (Cold): Emulsified asphalt and unheated aggregate are combined in a mixing facility to create a plant mix. Paving equipment is used to spread and compact the mixture when it is at or close to room temperature.

Plant Mix Base: An asphalt cement- or emulsified asphalt-coated aggregate makes up a plant mix base. It is made in a mixing facility and acts as a foundation.

Pneumatic-Tire Roller: A pneumatic tire roller is a compactor that has several tires positioned so that their tracks overlap, providing a kneading kind of compaction.

Portland Cement Concrete: Known for its gray or white hue, Portland cement concrete is a blend of aggregated cement and binder. The end product is a concrete surface that is comparatively consistent, smooth, and has few exposed aggregates.

Potholes: Disintegration leaves behind bowl-shaped holes in pavement.

Power Sweeper: To remove loose debris from the pavement surface, a rotary broom that runs on electricity is utilized.

Pumping: Pumping is the process of releasing water and subgrade sediments along pavement edges, joints, and fractures.


Raveling: Raveling is the term for the progressive roughening of an asphalt pavement’s surface texture. It happens as fine sand particles “wash” away, exposing coarse rock on the surface of the pavement and giving it a far rougher texture than when it was first built.

Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP): This type of asphalt pavement is made up of crushed asphalt pavement that has been removed during excavation in order to be used as an aggregate in asphalt pavement recycling.

Recycled Asphalt Mix: A mixture made from salvaged asphalt pavement materials is known as a recycled asphalt mix.

Reflection Cracks: These are cracks in asphalt overlays that replicate the pattern of cracks in the pavement structure underneath them.

Residue: The asphalt binder that is left over after an asphalt emulsion has broken and dried, following the completion of the emulsifying agent’s work, is known as residue.

Roadway: A roadway is any facility designed to accommodate motor vehicle traffic, such as streets, parking lots, minor roads, and interstate highways.


Sand: Sand is a fine aggregate that’s left over after processing or natural rock breaks down and abrades.

Saw-Cut and Seal: This technique is applied on overlays to manage reflective cracking. It entails precisely aligning the joints in the new overlay with the joints in the pavement that already exists.

Sealcoat: Usually provided by paving companies, sealcoat helps parking lots last longer. It entails dousing the asphalt surface with a blend of water, asphalt emulsion, small crushed rock (aggregate), and additional additives. Products for sealcoating asphalt pavements maintain and improve their look. They are frequently used for maintenance purposes on driveways, parking lots, and car parks to increase the longevity of the surface.

Sealcoat Additives: For a variety of uses, additives are combined on-site with the sealer. While some additives improve resistance to oil, fuel, and grease, others lessen power steering markings. Additionally, there are chemicals that strengthen water resistance.

Self-Propelled Spreaders: These spreaders have two hoppers and their own power units. Conveyor belts move the aggregate forward to the spreading hopper while these spreaders draw the truck as it dumps its load into the receiving hopper.

Sheet Asphalt: A hot mixture of mineral filler, clean, angular, graded sand, and asphalt binder is called sheet asphalt. Usually, landfill tops and reservoir liners are made of it.

Shoving: The kind of plastic action that causes the pavement to bulge is called shoving.

Shrinkage Cracks: Shrinkage cracks are linked fractures that assemble into a sequence of sizable blocks and frequently include acute angles or corners.

Skid Hazard: Any situation that could lessen the friction forces on the pavement surface is referred to as a “skid hazard.”

Skid Resistance: The ability of the pavement to provide resistance against slipping or skidding is known as “skid resistance.” Skid resistance is greatly influenced by aggregate with a rough surface texture and the right amount of asphalt composition.

Slope: Slope is the amount of angularity present in a paved surface.

Slippage Cracks: Caused by horizontal stresses brought on by traffic, slippage cracks have a crescent form. They are open in the direction that wheels push on the pavement.

Soil/Cement Base: A compacted mixture of crushed soil, cement, and water is cured to produce a hardened substance known as a soil/cement base. In a pavement system, it serves as a layer that protects and strengthens the subbase or subgrade.

Spalling: The cracking or chipping of a cement pavement at joints, fractures, or edges is known as spalling, and it usually results in fragments with feather edges.

Squeegee Machine or Sealer Buggy: Using rubber squeegees, seal coating ingredients are applied using a ride-on application machine known as a sealer buggy or squeegee machine. These squeegees aid in forcing the sealcoat into the asphalt’s crevices.

Stability:The ability of an asphalt paving mixture to withstand deformation is known as stability, and it depends on both cohesion and internal friction.

Steel-Wheel Static Rollers: These rollers are either three- or tandem-wheeled, and they use cylindrical steel rollers to press their weight firmly into the pavement.

Steel-Wheel Vibratory Rollers: Steel-wheel vibratory rollers are compactors that use one or two cylindrical steel rolls to apply pressure while vibrating and applying weight. The vibration’s frequency and amplitude can be changed to modify the compaction force.

Structural Overlay: An HMA overlay intended to improve the pavement system’s structural integrity and riding quality is called a structural overlay.

Subgrade: The prepared soil that acts as the pavement’s foundation and sustains a pavement system or structure is known as the subgrade.

Superpave Mix Design: This asphalt mixture design system takes into account the project’s climate and design traffic while integrating volumetric proportioning and material selection (aggregate, asphalt).

Superpave™: The term “SuperpaveTM” refers to “Superior Performing Asphalt Pavement.” The method for choosing and defining asphalt binders and creating asphalt mixtures is performance-based.


Tack Coat: Usually applied in between layers of asphalt pavement, a tack coat is a spray-on asphalt compound that encourages bonding between fresh asphalt concrete and other surfaces.

Tack Coat Sprayer: A tack coat sprayer is a machine used to heat and spray emulsions, asphalt rejuvenators, tack coats, and more.

Tracking: Tracking is the result of products or materials being “picked up” by car tires, shoes, shopping cart wheels, etc., and being carried, or “tracked,” from the pavement onto surfaces where the material is not desired.

Transverse Crack: A transverse crack is defined as one that travels roughly perpendicular to the centerline. It may be the result of a reflective crack brought on by fractures underneath the surface layer of hot mix asphalt (HMA), or it may be the result of the HMA surface shrinking as a result of low temperatures or asphalt binder hardening.Upheaval: The term “upheaval” describes the limited upward displacement of a pavement due to subgrade swelling or structural collapse of a section of the pavement.


Upheaval: Upheaval refers to the localized upward displacement of a pavement caused by the swelling of the subgrade or some portion of the pavement structure.


Wedge Cut: Grinding the current asphalt layer into a wedge form to match a nearby structure, such as a curb and gutter, valley gutter, or ramp, is known as a wedge cut. Usually, this is completed before the overlay procedure.

Well-Graded Aggregate: From the maximum size down to the filler, well-graded aggregate is defined as aggregate that is graded with comparatively uniform proportions.

Workability: The ease with which pavement mixtures can be applied and compacted is known as workability. It explains how the mixture works well to work with in the building process.